What it is?

Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing the mind on a particular object, thought, or activity – to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm and stable state.

Where does the word come from?

The word meditation stems from meditatum, a Latin term that means ‘to ponder. 

What is meditation all about?

Meditation may be an ancient tradition, but it is still practiced in cultures all over the world to create a sense of calm and inner harmony.

Although the practice has ties to many different religious teachings, meditation is less about faith and more about altering consciousness, finding awareness, and achieving peace.

These days, with the greater need to reduce stress in the midst of our busy schedules and demanding lives, meditation is increasing in popularity.

Although there is not  a right or wrong way to meditate, it is important to find a practice that meets your needs and complements your personality.

Types of meditation techniques:

  • Mindfulness meditation.

Mindfulness meditation originates from Buddhist teachings and is the most popular meditation technique in the West. In mindfulness meditation, you pay attention to your thoughts as they pass through your mind. You don’t judge the thoughts or become involved with them. You simply observe and take note of any patterns. This practice combines concentration with awareness. You may find it helpful to focus on an object or your breath while you observe any bodily sensations, thoughts, or feelings. This type of meditation is good for people who do not have a teacher to guide them, as it can be easily practiced alone.

  • Spiritual meditation

Spiritual meditation is used in Eastern religions, such as Hinduism and Daoism, and in Christian faith.

It is similar to prayer in that you reflect on the silence around you and seek a deeper connection with your God or Universe.

Essential oils are commonly used to heighten the spiritual experience. Popular options include:

  • frankincense
  • myrrh
  • sage
  • cedar
  • sandalwood
  • palo santo

Spiritual meditation can be practiced at home or in a place of worship. This practice is beneficial for those who thrive in silence and seek spiritual growth.

  • Focused meditation

Focused meditation involves concentration using any of the five senses. For example, you can focus on something internal, like your breath, or you can bring in external influences to help focus your attention. Try counting mala beads, listening to a gong, or staring at a candle flame. This practice may be simple in theory, but it can be difficult for beginners to hold their focus for longer than a few minutes at first. If your mind does wander, it is important to come back to the practice and refocus. As the name suggests, this practice is ideal for anyone who requires additional focus in their life.

  • Movement meditation

Although most people think of yoga when they hear movement meditation, this practice may include walking through the woods, gardening, or just spending time with nature, and other gentle forms of motion. It is an active form of meditation where the movement guides you. Movement meditation is good for people who find peace in action and prefer to let their minds wander.

  • Mantra meditation

Mantra meditation is prominent in many teachings, including Hindu and Buddhist traditions. This type of meditation uses a repetitive sound to clear the mind. It can be a word, phrase, or sound, such as the popular “Om.” It does not matter if your mantra is spoken loudly or quietly. After chanting the mantra for some time, you will be more alert and in tune with your environment. This allows you to experience deeper levels of awareness. Some people enjoy mantra meditation because they find it easier to focus on a word than on their breath. This is also a good practice for people who don’t like silence and enjoy repetition.

  • Transcendental meditation

Transcendental Meditation is a popular type of meditation. This practice has been the subject of numerous studies in the scientific community. It is more customizable than mantra meditation, using a mantra or series of words that are specific to each practitioner. This practice is for those who like structure and are serious about maintaining a meditation practice.

  • Progressive relaxation

Also known as body scan meditation, progressive relaxation is a practice aimed at reducing tension in the body and promoting relaxation. Oftentimes, this form of meditation involves slowly tightening and relaxing one muscle group at a time throughout the body. In some cases, it may also encourage you to imagine a gentle wave flowing through your body to help release any tension. This form of meditation is often used to relieve stress and unwind before bedtime.

  • Loving-kindness meditation

Loving-kindness meditation is used to strengthen feelings of compassion, kindness, and acceptance toward oneself and others. It typically involves opening the mind to receive love from others and then sending a series of well wishes to loved ones, friends, acquaintances, and all living beings. Because this type of meditation is intended to promote compassion and kindness, it may be ideal for those holding feelings of anger or resentment.

  • Visualization meditation

Visualization meditation is a technique focused on enhancing feelings of relaxation, peace, and calmness by visualizing positive scenes or images. With this practice, it’s important to imagine the scene vividly and use all five senses to add as much detail as possible. Another form of visualization meditation involves imagining yourself succeeding at specific goals, which is intended to increase focus and motivation. Many people use visualization meditation to boost their mood, reduce stress levels, and promote inner peace.


  • I will fall asleep.
  • Meditation is boring.
  • Meditation is selfish.
  • Meditation is hard.
  • I don’t have time.
  • Meditation is just a fancy name for napping and relaxation.
  • It makes me emotionless.
  • It takes years to benefit from it.

Why meditation is not working for you:

  • Judging yourself
  • Meditating when you are tired
  • Not being consistent
  • Thinking it’s easy
  • Not being patient with yourself 

Is meditation good for your health:

Absolutely! Meditation may significantly reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and pain, and enhance peace, improve sleep, perception, self-concept, and well-being. Research is ongoing to better understand the effects of meditation on health psychological, neurological, and cardiovascular and other areas.

Meditation Apps:

  • Headspace
  • Calm
  • Insight timer
  • Aura
  • Sattva
  • YogaGlo
  • Inscape
  • Smiling mind

Best meditation books: 

Bottom line:

Whether you’re looking to reduce stress or find spiritual enlightenment, find stillness, or flow through movement, there’s a meditation practice for you. Don’t be afraid to step out of your comfort zone and try different types. It often takes a little trial and error until you find the one that fits. “Meditation isn’t meant to be a forced thing,” Healthline says. “If we’re forcing it, then it becomes a chore. Gentle, regular practice eventually becomes sustaining, supportive, and enjoyable. Open yourself up to the possibilities.

There are so many different forms of meditation that if one isn’t working or isn’t comfortable, just try a new one.” Also, the history of meditation is fascinating and well worth exploring to build you knowledge.

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Hilton L, et al. (2017). Mindfulness meditation for chronic pain: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DOI:
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2020). Meditation: A simple, fast way to reduce stress.
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Orme-Johnson DW. (2014). .
Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Technique on Trait Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Rusch HL, et al. (2019). The effect of mindfulness meditation on sleep quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Saaed SA, et al. (2019). Depression and anxiety disorders: Benefits of exercise, yoga, and meditation.
Shi L, et al. (2017). Meditation and blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. DOI:
Shojai P. (2017). Personal interview.
What are the different types of meditation? (n.d.).
Written by Holly J. Bertone, CNHP, PMP — Updated on October 2, 2020
Photo Credit: Burst

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