Pregnancy-Safe Skin Care Routine

As soon as you find out you’re expecting, your whole world changes. And that might include your skin care line-up, too.

While it is more well known that you must shelve your favorite wine (sorry!), having to nix your trusted skin care products may come as a real shock. But all eyes are on your skin products for a good reason. Certain ingredients can be absorbed into your body, and therefore, your baby’s body, too.

Rest assured that most over the counter (OTC) body care products are completely safe, but there are a few ingredients that could be harmful to your little one. So, here is the good news: You can find a balance between maintaining your mama-to-be glow and protecting your baby.

Whether you’re looking for a safe product to reverse an unwelcome skin change brought on by pregnancy (yes, unfortunately, they do happen) or you’re checking up on the safety of your current regimen, this breakdown of what a healthy pregnancy skin care routine looks like, as well as what specific ingredients to avoid is for you.

Skin changes during pregnancy:

First, let’s face it: Pregnancy-related skin changes happen to many people. Hormones can take the blame — or you can chalk it up to just another one of those “normal” quirks that come with the mama-to-be gig.

While some lucky ladies experience 9 months of pure complexion perfection, others experience at least one less favorable new or worsening skin issue at some point. The most common are:

  • dry skin
  • darkening skin (a condition called melasmaor cholasma)
  • acne

People with preexisting skin conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, or rosacea may also experience a change in their symptoms (for better or worse).

And because your body is “all in” when it comes to pregnancy, pesky skin changes can affect other places, too — think stretch marks, spider veins, hair growth, and even hair loss.

Top skin care ingredients to avoid in pregnancy:

Before we jump into our list, we must point out that evidence-based data on the safety of specific products in pregnancy is limited. In almost all cases, clinical trials on pregnant women that could even start to prove that certain ingredients are harmful are an ethical no-no.

But some animal, anecdotal, or case-specific studies have shown some serious fetal effects related to a few common skin care ingredients. That’s the basis for our recommendations.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires cosmetic products to be “safe” based on their specific uses and labeling, but they don’t need FDA approval to be sold on the market.

All of that brings big questions about what cosmetics are truly safe during pregnancy. On this basis, most experts (and therefore, we) err on the side of caution.

Retinoids:

Vitamin A is a crucial nutrient that’s required for optimal skin, immune, reproductive, and eye health. Once consumed or absorbed through skin, your body converts it to retinol.

Some anti-aging skin care products use a type of retinol called retinoids, which have become a holy grail because they can help reverse acne and reduce fine lines. Retinoids do this by helping surface-level skin cells exfoliate faster and boosting collagen production to rejuvenate skin.

Over-the-counter products have lower levels of retinoids, while prescription medications — such as Retin-A (tretinoin) and Accutane (isotretinoin) — contain much higher doses. The amount of retinoids absorbed by topical products is likely low, but birth defects have been linked in higher doses. As such, all retinoids are advised against during pregnancy.

Prescription retinoids like Accutane have been widely documented for posing a 20 to 35 percent risk of severe congenital defects, with up to 60 percent of children showing neurocognitive problems with exposure in utero.

Because of this, it’s recommended that women of childbearing age taking Accutane:

  • use two forms of contraception.
  • be frequently monitored by their doctor for pregnancy and compliance.
  • stop the medication 1–2 months before trying to become pregnant.
High-dose salicylic acid:

Salicylic acid is a common ingredient to treat acne due to its anti-inflammatory capabilities, similar to that of an aspirin. But a 2013 study concluded products that deliver a high dose of salicylic acid — such as peels and oral medications — should be avoided during pregnancy.

That said, lower-dose topical OTC products that contain salicylic acid have been reported safe by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).

Hydroquinone:

Hydroquinone is a prescription product to lighten skin or reduce skin pigmentation that occurs from melasma and chloasma, which can be brought on by pregnancy.

There’s no proven link between severe congenital defects or side effects and hydroquinone. But because the body can absorb a significant amount of hydroquinone compared to other ingredients (25 to 35 percent according to this article), it’s best to limit exposure (if any at all) during pregnancy.

Phthalates

Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in many beauty and personal products. In animal studies, serious reproductive and hormone dysfunction have been linked to phthalate exposure.

There are few human studies to support this, but endocrine disruptors are becoming increasingly studied by the FDA and professional medical organizations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics for their potential role in negatively affecting congenital reproductive health.

Cosmetics are the top source of phthalate exposure, and the most common phthalate you’ll find in beauty products is diethylphthalate (DEP).

Formaldehyde:

Formaldehyde is rarely used as a preservative and disinfectant in beauty products anymore because it’s a known carcinogen, and, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, can increase the risk of infertility and miscarriage.

But there are formaldehyde-releasing chemicals commonly found in cosmetics with a similar potentially dangerous affect. These include the following, as noted by the Environmental Working Group:

  • bronopol
  • DMDM hydantoin
  • diazolidinyl urea
  • hydroxymethylglycinate
  • imidazolidinyl urea
  • quaternium-15
  • 5-bromo-5-nitro-1,3-dioxane
Chemical sunscreens:

Oxybenzone and its derivatives are the most frequently used ultraviolet (UV) filter in sunscreens. It’s proven effective for skin protection, but the potentially adverse health and environmental effects of oxybenzone are bringing it into a more unfavorable light.

Because oxybenzone is a known endocrine-disrupting chemical, the concern for use in pregnancy is that it could disrupt hormones and cause permanent damage to mother and baby.

2018 animal study concluded that oxybenzone exposure during pregnancy at levels humans would commonly use made permanent changes to mammary glands and lactation. Other animal studies have linked the chemical to permanent fetal damage, possibly associated with developing neurological conditions in adulthood, such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Safe skin care ingredient alternatives:

Here are a few alternatives to safely conquer pregnancy’s most common (and frustrating) skin woes.

Acne and hyperpigmentation:

If you’re prone to breakouts — or find yourself suddenly traveling back in time with adolescent-like skin flashbacks — there are some safer alternatives to using retinoid-based products while expecting. One of the most effective is glycolic acid.

Glycolic acid in large quantities is not recommended during pregnancy, but it is likely safe in small amounts commonly found in over-the-counter beauty products. Glycolic acid and similar ones — such as azelaic acid — can also help with reducing fine lines, brightening skin, and reducing enhanced skin pigmentation.

The ACOG endorses glycolic and azelaic acid as safe to treat acne during pregnancy, in addition to topical benzoyl peroxide and topical salicylic acid.

Anti-aging/wrinkles:

Just as they work like magic to boost your immune system and ward off free radicals in your body, topical antioxidants such as vitamin C can safely enhance your skin’s vitality by protecting your skin from damage and maintaining collagen.

Other pregnancy-safe antioxidants to try in your skin care products include:

  • vitamin E
  • vitamin K
  • vitamin B3
  • green tea
Dry skin and stretch marks:

There’s no doubt that pregnancy requires a lot from your body, so if your baby-to-be needs more water at any point, it will pull it from your body. That — in addition to hormone changes — can lead to dry skin.

In addition to drinking plenty of water, moisturizing products that have coconut oil, cocoa butter, peptides, and hyaluronic acid (HA) can improve hydration. And when it comes to stretch marks, one strategy to prevent them is frequently moisturizing prone zones to help the skin stretch naturally as your bump (and baby) grow.

Sun protection:

Sun protection is one of the most important things you can do for long-term wrinkle and skin cancer protection. But how you safely protect your skin during pregnancy is the big question.

The verdict on the safety of chemical broad-spectrum sunscreens is still out, so try mineral-based sunscreens that protect the skin by forcing the UV rays to bounce off of the skin entirely. Mineral-based sunscreen ingredients include zinc oxide and titanium dioxide. And don’t forget that wide-brimmed hat to add some fashionable shade.

How to check if your skin care products are safe:

First, discuss the safety of your skin care products with your dermatologist and OB/GYN, especially if you’re taking prescription medications or are concerned about a pre-existing skin condition.

Next, you can scan your products’ list of ingredients for any we’ve reviewed — or others that may be concerning to you. A very credible resource for learning more about skin care and personal product ingredient safety is the Environmental Working Group (EWG).

Because personal care products aren’t heavily regulated, the EWG developed a database of over 87,000 personal care products, delivering a safety rating for each. The safety rating is generated by referencing each product’s ingredients with over 60 toxicity and regulatory databases.

You can reference the EWG’s Skin Deep® database online or get the app (available for iPhone or Android). In the app, you can quickly scan a product’s bar code to get its safety rating.

Talk with a dermatologist for best practices for general morning and night skin care routine and products safe for pregnancy.

  • First, use lukewarm water to wash your face with a mild cleanser.
  • Check out toners, based on your skin.
  • To follow, add a broad-spectrum mineral-based sunscreen.

Shop for these pregnancy-safe sunscreens:

  • SPF 30
  • SPF 40 tinted face stick
  • After that, apply a moisturizer that fits your skin type.
  • Then, apply an eye cream (if needed).
  • For stretch mark prevention, apply moisturizer on belly, hips, and thighs.
  • For your night ritual, sub in a serum for your sun protection.

    Bottom Line:
    It’s not easy to give up your beloved skin care regimen, but we know you’ll do anything to protect your little one.
    This includes avoiding products that could be harmful to you or your baby during pregnancy — with evidence suggesting that prescription retinoid-containing products are the most likely candidate to lead to severe congenital defects. Talk to your OB/GYN or dermatologist for guidance on your specific pregnancy skin-care concerns and goals.

    References:

    Bayerl C. (2013). Acne therapy in pregnancy. DOI:
    10.1007/s00105-012-2456-2
    Bozzo P, et al. (2011). Safety of skin care products during pregnancy.
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3114665/
    Chen L, et al. (2012). The role of antioxidants in photoprotection: A critical review. DOI:
    10.1016/j.jaad.2012.02.009
    Cosmetics & pregnancy. (2018).
    fda.gov/cosmetics/resources-consumers-cosmetics/cosmetics-pregnancy
    DiNardo JC, et al. (2019). Can oxybenzone cause Hirschsprung’s disease? DOI:
    10.1016/j.reprotox.2019.02.014
    Exposing the cosmetic cover-up. (2013).
    ewg.org/research/exposing-cosmetics-cover/formaldehyde-releasers
    LaPlante CD, et al. (2018). Oxybenzone alters mammary gland morphology in mice exposed during pregnancy and lactation. DOI:
    10.1210/js.2018-00024
    Mukherjee S, et al. (2006). Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: An overview of clinical efficacy and safety.
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699641/
    Oxybenzone. (n.d.).
    pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Oxybenzone
    Phthalates. (2013).
    fda.gov/cosmetics/cosmetic-ingredients/phthalates
    Reproductive health and the workplace. (2019).
    cdc.gov/niosh/topics/repro/formaldehyde.html
    Robins JC, et al. (2011). Endocrine disruptors, environmental oxygen, epigenetics and pregnancy. DOI:
    10.2741/e279
    Sathyanarayana S, et al. (2008). Baby care products: Possible sources of infant phthalate exposure DOI:
    10.1542/peds.2006-3766
    Skin conditions during pregnancy. (2018).
    acog.org/patient-resources/faqs/pregnancy/skin-conditions-during-pregnancy#pregnancy
    Tunzi M, et al. (2007). Common skin conditions during pregnancy.
    aafp.org/afp/2007/0115/p211.html
    Wnuk A, et al. (2019). Prenatal exposure to benzophenone-3 impairs autophagy, disrupts RXRs/PPARγ signaling, and alters epigenetic and post-translational statuses in brain neurons. DOI:
    10.1007/s12035-018-1401-5
    https://www.healthline.com/health/pregnancy/pregnancy-safe-skin-care#takeaway
    https://www.healthline.com/reviewers/debra-rose-wilson-phd-msn-rn-ibclc-ahn-bc-cht
    Written by Nicole Jablonski on June 30, 2020
    Photo Credit: Mustafa Omar

    コメントを残す